Glossary of Terms

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The most common type of wireless telephone communication today. It allows slow data communication, but its primary focus is voice.

Bridges the standard between 2G and 3G. Digital communication allows e-mail and simple web browsing.

3G stands for third generation wireless communication technology. It refers to pending improvements in wireless data and voice communications through any of a variety of proposed standards. The immediate goal is to raise transmission speeds to 2Mbit/sec.

A group of wireless specifications developed by the IEEE. It details a wireless interface between devices to manage packet traffic (to avoid collisions, etc.). Some common specifications and their distinctive attributes include the following:

Operates in the 5 GHz frequency range (5.125 to 5.85 GHz) with a maximum 54Mbit/sec. signaling rate. The 5 GHz frequency band isn't as crowded as the 2.4 GHz frequency because it offers significantly more radio channels than the 802.11b and is used by fewer applications. It has a shorter range than 802.11g, is actually newer than 802.11b and isn't compatible with 802.11b.

Operates in the 2.4 GHz Industrial, Scientific and Measurement (ISM) band (2.4 to 2.4835 GHz) and provides signaling rates of up to 11Mbit/sec. This is a very commonly used frequency. Microwave ovens, cordless phones, medical and scientific equipment, as well as Bluetooth devices, all work within the 2.4 GHz ISM band.

Ratified by the IEEE in September 2005, the 802.11e quality-of-service specification is designed to guarantee the quality of voice and video traffic. It is particularly important for companies interested in using Wi-Fi phones.

Similar to 802.11b, but supports signaling rates of up to 54Mbit/sec. It also operates in the heavily used 2.4 GHz ISM band but uses a different radio technology to boost overall throughput. Compatible with older 802.11b.

Also sometimes called Wi-Fi Protected Access 2 (WPA 2), 802.11i was ratified in June 2004. WPA 2 supports the 128 bit-and-above Advanced Encryption Standard, along with 802.1x authentication and key management features.

Predicted for ratification in mid-2006, the 802.11k Radio Resource Management standard will provide measurement information for access points and switches to make wireless LANs run more efficiently. It may, for example, better distribute traffic loads across access points or allow dynamic adjustments of transmission power to minimize interference.

The Standard for Enhancements for Higher Throughput is designed to raise effective WLAN throughput to more than 100Mbit/sec. Final ratification is expected in late 2006.

Expected to be ratified in mid to late 2006, the 802.11r Fast Roaming standard will address maintaining connectivity as a user moves from one access point to another. This is especially important in applications that need low latency and high quality-of-service standards such as voice-over-WLAN.

This standard will deal with mesh networking. It is predicted to be ratified in mid-2008.

access point (AP)
A WLAN transceiver or "base station" that can connect a network to one or many wireless devices. APs can also bridge to one another.

air time
Actual time spent talking on the wireless telephone. Customers are generally billed based on how many minutes of air time they use each month.

Companies who work with larger carriers to build a nationwide network. Affiliates may use the larger carrier's brand name, network operations, customer service or other resources.

air interface
The operating system of a wireless network. Technologies include AMPS, TDMA, CDMA, GSM and iDEN.

Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS) is the analog service first deployed in the United States and still used in some regions around the world.

The traditional method of adapting radio signals so they can carry information. AM (Amplitude Modulation) and FM (Frequency Modulation) are the two most common analog systems. Analog has largely been replaced by digital technologies, which are more secure, more efficient and provide better quality.

Analog technology that enables radio signals to carry information through radio signals. Analog permits only one call per channel (contrast to digital technology, which allows up to 15 calls per channel).

A device for transmitting and receiving signals. Often camouflaged on existing buildings, trees, water towers or other tall structures, the size and shape of antennas are generally determined by the frequency of the signal they manage.

API (Application Programming Interface)
A set of routines, protocols, and tools for building software applications. A good API makes it easier to develop a program by providing all the building blocks a programmer needs to make the application consistent with the operating environment. APIs guarantee that all programs using a common API will have similar interfaces, making it easier for users to learn new programs.

The @Road Application Program Interface (API) <link to API in Enterprise Integration section> gives you the power to bi-directionally integrate your existing applications with the @Road LocationSmart SM platform, extending the benefits of @Road Mobile Resource Management (MRM) solutions to your entire organization. Such integration may reduce data entry duplication, enhance customer service and deliver a solid return on investment.

artificial intelligence (AI)
Intelligence exhibited by an artificial entity such as a computer; aims to produce machines that automate tasks that normally require intelligent behavior. Examples include control, planning and scheduling.

base station
The central radio transmitter/receiver that communicates with mobile telephones within a given range (typically a cell site).

The size of a network "pipe" or channel for communications in wired networks. In wireless, it refers to the range of available frequencies that can carry a signal.

The code name for a new technology that enables mobile devices equipped with a special chip to send and receive information wirelessly. Using Bluetooth, electronic devices such as desktop computers, wireless phones, electronic organizers and printers in the 2.4 GHz range can “talk to” each other. Ericsson, Intel, Nokia, Toshiba and IBM have led the development effort, and are now joined by more than 700 partners, including Compaq, Dell, Motorola, Qualcomm, BMW and Casio.

A general term describing telecommunications systems that can move data, voice and video services, at higher speeds.

Also known as service provider or operator, a carrier is the communications company that provides customers with air time and other services for their wireless phones.

CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access)
A technology used to transmit wireless calls by assigning them codes. Calls are spread out over the widest range of available channels. Then codes allow many calls to travel on the same frequency and also guide those calls to the correct receiving phone.

CDPD (Cellular Digital Packet Data)
A technology that separates data files into many "packets" and sends them through empty channels of existing voice networks. It allows users to send and receive data from anywhere in a particular coverage area at any time, quickly and efficiently.

The basic geographic unit of wireless coverage; also shorthand for the generic industry term "cellular." A region is divided into smaller "cells," each equipped with a low-powered radio transmitter/receiver. The radio frequencies assigned to one cell can be limited to the boundaries of that cell. As a wireless call moves from one cell to another, a computer at the Mobile Telephone Switching Office (MTSO) monitors the call and at the proper time, transfers the phone call to the new cell and new radio frequency. The handoff is performed so quickly that it’s not noticeable to callers.

cell site
The location where a wireless antenna and network communications equipment are placed.

cell splitting
A means of increasing the capacity of a wireless system by subdividing one cell into two or more smaller cells.

A path along which a communications signal is transmitted.

CMRS (Commercial Mobile Radio Service)
An FCC designation for any wireless carrier or license owner whose wireless service is connected to the public switch telephone network and/or is operated for profit.

Placement of multiple antennas at a common site to reduce environmental impact and leasing costs, and to speed zoning approvals and network deployment. Some companies act as brokers, arranging cell sites and coordinating many carriers' antennas at a single cell site.

CRM (Customer Relationship Management)
Solutions that act as an interface between customers and the enterprise back-office.

CTIA (Cellular Telecommunications & Internet Association) is the international organization that aims to represent all elements of wireless communication -- cellular, personal communications services, enhanced specialized mobile radio and mobile satellite services -- and serve the interests of service providers, manufacturers and others.

data capture
Gathering location information is just the starting point for many @Road Field Force Management solutions. Leveraging our patented LocationSmart SM technology, @Road data capture devices continuously collect location information from GPS satellites, calculating position, speed, direction of travel and time. The information is sent via wireless networks to @Road data centers, where you may access this information from your secure @Road online account 24 hours a day, seven days a week. @Road offers two ways to collect data--through in-vehicle (get link) or hand-held devices (get link) .

data transport
@Road solutions work seamlessly with a variety of positioning systems and wireless communications networks. To supply the connectivity critical to intelligent wireless solutions, the @Road infrastructure leverages the technology of major wireless carriers, including Cingular SM, Sprint Nextel, Verizon and others. Highly available, reliable, and scalable, the @Road wide-area network offers robust performance and global coverage capabilities. Patented LocationSmart SM technology transparently stores location information during gaps in GPS coverage and forwards that information on to @Road servers once coverage is re-established.

Technology that converts signals (including voice) into the binary digits ‘0’ and ‘1’. This data is compressed, then transformed into electronic pulses for a wired network, optical light waves for fiber optic networks, or radio waves for wireless networks. Digital wireless technology is rapidly replacing analog because digital offers better sound quality, more secure signals, more callers per cell site and faster data services.

DirectData is an optional @Road service that provides one-way data transfer from @Road to your in-house systems, such as dispatch operation systems or other customer databases. DirectData employs open-standard XML and leading security and encryption capability to continuously transmit data from @Road as your vehicles update, enabling you to perform calculations or develop custom reports as needed. There’s no need to modify any of your systems to use the @Road DirectData service.

dual band
A wireless hand-held device that works on both 800 MHz frequencies and 1900 MHz PCS frequencies.

dual mode
A wireless hand-held device that works on both analog and digital networks.

 EDGE (Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution)
This 3G technology allows wireless transmission of data at speeds up to 384Kbit/sec. It's based on GSM technology and allows for high-bandwidth services such as multimedia. It has more support in North America than in other areas where technologies such as CDMA2000 and UMTS may be favored.

EvDO (Evolution Data Only/Evolution Data Optimized)
An "evolution" of CDMA networks that is based on the 1xRTT standard, providing faster wireless data transmission speeds of 400Kbit/sec. to 700Kbit/sec. with a theoretical peak of 2.4Mbit/sec. Verizon Wireless and Sprint Corp. in the United States rolled out the service in early 2005, connecting to laptops via a plug-in card. Today many mobile devices are equipped with EvDO.

ESMR (Enhanced Specialized Mobile Radio)
A single wireless device that combines a two-way radio, phone, mobile dispatch, radio paging and mobile data capabilities, and operates on digital networks. Usually refers to Nextel Communications.

ERP ( Enterprise Resource Planning)
Management information systems that integrate and automate many of the business practices associated with the operations or production aspects of a company.

ESN (Electronic Serial Number)
The unique serial identification number programmed into a wireless phone by the manufacturer. Each time a call is placed, the ESN is transmitted to a nearby base station so the wireless carrier can validate the call. The ESN differs from the Mobile Identification Number, which identifies a customer’s cellular phone number. MINs and ESNs are electronically monitored to help prevent fraud.

The Federal Communications Commission is the government agency responsible for regulating telecommunications in the United States.

field client
An application residing on the hand-held device of the field engineer, allowing him/her to access critical enterprise data, receive work orders and report back on progress. @Road Taskforce contains a field client for use on Java-enabled PDAs. .

Field Service Management (FSM)
Field Service Management is the process of managing mobile resources to improve the performance of tasks in the field. FSM includes scheduling, dispatching and Intelligent Appointing, as reflected in the @Road Taskforce solution.

FWA (Fixed Wireless Access)
Also known as wireless local loop, fixed wireless refers to wireless devices or systems set in fixed locations, such as an office or home, as opposed to mobile devices like wireless phones and PDAs. Fixed wireless devices usually derive their power from fixed utilities, as opposed to portable wireless devices that are powered by batteries.

GPRS (General Packet Radio Service)
This technology runs at speeds up to 115Kbit/sec., compared with the 9.6Kbit/sec. of older GSM systems. It enables high-speed wireless Internet and other communications such as e-mail, games and applications. It supports a wide range of bandwidths and is an efficient use of limited bandwidth. It's particularly suited for sending and receiving small amounts of data, such as for e-mail and web browsing, and may also be used to send and receive large volumes of data.

GPS (Global Positioning System)
A worldwide satellite navigational system, made up of 24 satellites orbiting the earth and their receivers on the earth’s surface. The GPS satellites continuously transmit digital radio signals so that up-to-the-minute information may be used in location tracking, navigation and other location or mapping technologies.

GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications)
A technology that works similarly to TDMA by dividing wireless calls into time slots. GSM is most common in Europe, Australia and much of Asia and Africa. However, GSM phones from the United States are not compatible with international GSM phones because they operate on different frequencies.

The process when a wireless network automatically switches a mobile call to an adjacent cell site with a stronger signal.

A measure of electromagnetic energy, equivalent to one "wave" or cycle per second.

hot spot
A wireless access point where users can access the Internet and back-office business applications (ERP, CRM, Order Entry, Supply and Logistics, etc.) on-demand.

HSDPA (High-Speed Downlink Packet Access)

A 3G high-speed data technology that is an improvement to the WCDMA standard by boosting speed and reducing latency. It operates in the 5MHz spectrum and will initially provide real-world speeds of 400Kbit/sec. to 600Kbit/sec., with theoretical peak speeds of 14.4Mbit/sec.

iLM TM (Internet Location Manager)

Patented @Road in-vehicle mobile resource management device using GPS and wireless network communications technologies. The @Road iLM captures location-based information in the field and securely transmits it over high-speed wireless networks to @Road subscribers. This data shows up in the form of on-demand, exception or scheduled web-based reports that reflect information such as mobile worker location, vehicle speed, starts and stops on customizable maps.

Intelligent Appointer (IA)
Intelligent Appointer (IA) is a component of the @Road Dynamic Capacity Management Suite that enables businesses to guarantee customers precise appointment windows at a known cost to the business and to match customer demand to actual capacity levels.

IP (Internet Protocol)
Internet Protocol sends data packets, called datagrams, across multiple networks, but does not ensure that they arrive at their destination reliably (TCP ensures reliable delivery). Each IP datagram has a header containing source and destination information, allowing each datagram to travel independently to its destination directly or through gateways, with each datagram perhaps traveling a different route to reach its destination.

IP address
(Also called "Internet address.") The 32-bit address assigned to hosts using TCP/IP. Most Internet addresses consist of a network portion and a node portion. The address for each device must be unique on the network.

iDEN (Integrated Digital Enhanced Network)
A specialized mobile technology that combines two-way radio, telephone, text messaging and data transmission into one digital network. iDEN is designed to give users quick access to information on a single device. Introduced by Motorola and used exclusively by Nextel Communications.

Connecting one wireless network to another, such as linking a wireless carrier's network with a local exchange network.

The ability of a network to coordinate and communicate with other networks, such as two systems based on different protocols or technologies.

The Java platform for developing and running distributed multi-tier architecture applications, based largely on modular components running on an application server. J2EE is also considered informally to be a language or standard because providers must agree to certain conformance requirements in order to declare their products as Java EE compliant.

A task that cannot be performed as it does not fit into the schedule of work. @Road Taskforce offers an effective feature for Jeopardy Management.

LAN (Local Area Network)
A small data network covering a limited area, such as a building or group of buildings. Most LANs connect workstations or personal computers, allowing many users to share devices such as laser printers, as well as data. A LAN also allows easy communication by facilitating e-mail or supporting chat sessions.

The @Road Landmarks feature—available with all @Road Field Force Management solutions—is an enhanced scheduling and reporting tool that enables you to define and post special destinations and locations in the @Road customized mapping database, then view them conveniently on a map in relation to current field asset locations. Landmarks feature option is an excellent tool for administrators looking to streamline their vehicle routing process while reducing wasted time, fuel costs and other expenses.

MAC(Media Access Control)
Every wireless 802.11 device has its own specific Media Access Control address hard-coded into it. This unique identifier can be used to provide security for wireless networks. When a network uses a MAC table, only the 802.11 radios that have had their MAC addresses added to that network's MAC table are able to get onto the network.

@Road Mobile Enterprise Access (MEA)
@Road MEA provides mobile workers withconvenient and secure access to enterprise data. Using standards-based client/server enabling technologies, @Road MEA eliminates the complex middleware layer toenable the integration of mobile applications with legacy databases and back office applications.

MHz (Megahertz)
Megahertz is a unit of frequency equal to one million hertz or cycles per second. Wireless mobile communications within the United States occur in the 800 MHz, 900MHz and 1900MHz bands.

MIN (Mobile Identification Number)
More commonly known as a wireless phone number, a MIN uniquely identifies a wireless device within a wireless carrier's network. The MIN is dialed from other wireless or wireline networks to direct a signal to a specific wireless device. The number differs from the electronic serial number, which is the unit number assigned by a phone manufacturer. MINs and ESNs can be electronically checked to help prevent fraud.

MIPS (Millions of Instructions Per Second)
A rating of speed and power, MIPS describes a digital signal’s processing capabilities. It roughly measures the number of machine instructions a device can execute in one second. However, due to a lack of standards for measuring MIPS and differences in applications, it is not always an accurate measure of speed.

MRM (Mobile Resource Management)
A category of business solutions designed to maximize the productivity of mobile workforces. The most effective MRM solutions—such as those offered by @Road—combine Internet services with applications that leverage on-demand GPS, wireless capabilities and transaction processes to help companies reduce operating costs and raise the quality of customer experience.

MSA (Metropolitan Statistical Area)
The 306 largest urban markets in the United States are designated by population as MSAs by the U.S. government. At least two wireless operators are licensed in each MSA.

MTA (Major Trading Area)
A Personal Communications Services area designed by Rand McNally and adopted by the FCC. MTAs are usually several neighboring Basic Trading Areas (BTA’s). There are 51 MTAs in the United States.

MTSO (Mobile Telephone Switching Office)
The central computer that connects wireless phone calls to the public telephone network. The MTSO controls the series of operations required to complete wireless calls, including verifying calls, billing and antenna handoffs.

NAM (Number Assignment Module)
The NAM is the electronic memory bank in the wireless phone that stores its specific telephone number and electronic serial number.

A piece of data sent over a packet-switching network, such as the Internet. A packet includes not just data but also address information about its origination and destination.

packet data
Information that is reduced into digital pieces or “packets” of bytes, so it can travel more efficiently across radio airwaves and wireless networks.

PCS (Personal Communications Services)
A two-way digital voice, messaging and data service, which operates in the 1900 MHz band. Considered the “second generation” of wireless services.

PDA (Personal Digital Assistant)
A portable computing device capable of transmitting data. These devices offer services such as paging, data messaging, e-mail, computing, faxes, date books and other information management capabilities.

PIN (Personal Identification Number)
An additional security feature for wireless phones, much like a password. Programming a PIN into the Subscriber Information Module (SIM) on a wireless phone requires the user to enter that access code each time the phone is turned on.

For wireless, Persons of Population refers to the number of people in a specific area where wireless services are available. For traditional ‘landline’ communications, Point of Presence defines the interconnection point between the two networks.

Quality of Experience (QoE)
A subjective measure of a customer's experiences with a vendor. It looks at a vendor's offering from the standpoint of the end user and asks: "What mix of goods, services and support do you think will provide you with the perception that the total product is providing you with the experience you desired and/or expected?"

Devices that receive a radio signal, amplify it and re-transmit it in a new direction. Used in wireless networks to extend the range of base station signals and to expand coverage. Repeaters are typically used in buildings, tunnels or difficult terrain.

Radio Frequency Identification uses low-powered radio transmitters to read data stored in a transponder (tag) at distances ranging from one inch to 100 feet. RFID tags are used to track assets, manage inventory and authorize payments, and they increasingly serve as electronic keys for everything from autos to secure facilities.

When traveling outside their carrier's local area, roaming allows users the ability to move from one carrier’s coverage area to another, without interruption in service or dropped calls.

RSA (Rural Service Area)
One of the 428 rural markets across the United States, as designated by the FCC.

The process of assigning tasks to a set of resources.

SDK (Software Development Kit)
A kit provided by @Road for creating an easy-to-implement interface to the Taskforce solution.

smart antenna
A wireless antenna with technology that focuses its signal in a specific direction. Wireless networks use smart antennas to reduce the number of dropped calls, and to improve call quality and channel capacity.

smart phone
Wireless phones with advanced data features and often keyboards. What makes the phone "smart" is its ability to manage and transmit data in addition to voice calls.

SMS (Short Messaging Service)
Short Messaging Service enables users to send and receive short text messages (usually about 160 characters) on wireless handsets. Available on many second generation and all advanced wireless networks.

spectrum allocation
Process whereby the federal government designates frequencies for specific uses, such as personal communications services and public safety. Allocation is typically accomplished through lengthy FCC proceedings, which attempt to accommodate changes in spectrum demand and usage.

spectrum assignment
Federal government authorization for the use of specific frequencies within a given spectrum allocation, usually in a specific geographic location. Mobile communications assignments are granted to both private users such as businesses, and commercial providers such as wireless and paging operators. Spectrum auctions and/or frequency coordination processes, which consider potential interference to existing users, may apply.

spread spectrum
A method of transmitting a radio signal by spreading it over a wide range of frequencies. This reduces interference and can increase the number of users on one radio frequency band.

A Service Set Identifier is a sequence of characters unique to a specific network or network segment that's used by the network and all attached devices to identify themselves and allow devices to connect to the correct network when more than one independent network is operating in nearby areas.

synchronization of resources
Continuous optimization of work schedules, ensuring minimized idle time.

TCP Connect
@Road TCP Connect links external IP-enabled devices—such as mobile computers or hand-held devices—to the wireless modem within the @Road iLM® (Internet Location Manager) to remotely access email, order, inventory and other corporate applications over the Internet. In addition, TCP enables your mobile workers to request internal information from the iLM, including GPS-based location information, unit temperature, vehicle battery voltage, ignition status and sensor services inputs.

TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access)
A technology that transmits information by dividing calls into time slots, each one lasting only a fraction of a second. Each call is assigned a specific portion of time on a designated channel. By dividing each call into time “packets,” a single channel can carry many calls at once.

A group of tasks dispatched to a mobile worker, rather than single tasks. Unlike a task bundle, a tour consists of tasks that may not be at the same location.

UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System)
A 3G cellular network technology that uses WCDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access), which was operating in 25 countries as of mid-2005. The transmission rates range from a theoretical 384Kbit/sec. for phones that are moving up to 2Mbit/sec. for stationary devices.

UWB (Ultrawideband)
Also called digital pulse, UWB is a wireless technology for transmitting digital data over a wide swath of the radio frequency spectrum with very low power. Because of the low power requirement, it can carry signals through doors and other obstacles that tend to reflect signals at more limited bandwidths and a higher power. It can carry large amounts of data and is used for ground-penetrating radar and radio locations systems.

voice recognition
The capability for wireless phones, computers and other devices to be activated and controlled by voice commands.

WAP (Wireless Application Protocol)
A set of specifications, developed by the WAP Forum, that lets developers using Wireless Markup Language build networked applications designed for hand-held wireless devices. WAP was designed to work within the constraints of these devices: a limited memory and CPU size, small, monochrome screens, low bandwidth and erratic connections. WAP is a de facto standard, with support from more than 200 vendors.

WCDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access)
A 3G wireless technology derived from CDMA that transmits digitized data over a wide range of frequencies to boost speed. It uses wide 5 MHz channels and is associated with UMTS and GSM, where it boosts speed by substituting TDMA technology for CDMA. It's used for voice, data and video services and can achieve data rates up to 2M bit/sec.

WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access)
A data encryption specification for 802.11 wireless networks that replaces the weaker WEP. Created by the WiFi Alliance before a 802.11i security standard was ratified by the IEEE, it improves on WEP by using dynamic keys, Extensible Authentication Protocol to secure network access, and an encryption method called Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) to secure data transmissions.

 WPA2 (Wi-Fi Protected Access 2)
An enhanced version of WPA. It is the official 802.11i standard that was ratified by the IEEE in June 2004. It uses Advanced Encryption Standard instead of TKIP (see above). AES supports 128-bit, 192-bit and 256-bit keys.

Wireless fidelity is the generic term for 802.11 technology.

Popular name of the 802.16 wireless metropolitan-area network standard that's currently being developed. WiMax, which will have a range of up to 31 miles, is primarily aimed at making broadband network access widely available without the expense of stringing wires (as in cable-access broadband) or the distance limitations of Digital Subscriber Line. There are two flavors of WiMax: 802.16-2004 or 802.16d for fixed implementations, and 802.16e for mobile service.

WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network)
Wireless local-area networks use radio waves instead of a cable to connect a user device, such as a laptop computer, to a LAN. They provide Ethernet connections over the air and operate under the 802.11 family of specifications developed by the IEEE.

WML (Wireless Markup Language)
Similar to the Internet programming language HTML, WML delivers Internet content to small wireless devices, such as browser-equipped cellular phones and hand-held devices, which typically have very small displays, slow CPUs, limited memory capacity, low bandwidth and restricted user-input capabilities.

WEP (Wired-Equivalent Privacy)
WEP protocol was specified in the IEEE 802.11 standard to provide a WLAN with a minimal level of security and privacy comparable to a typical wired LAN, using data encryption. It's now widely recognized as flawed because of an insufficient key length and other problems and can be cracked in a short time with readily available tools.

General term for using radio-frequency spectrum for transmitting and receiving voice, data and video communications.

wireless Internet
A general term for using wireless services to access the Internet, e-mail and/or the web.

wireless IT (Wireless Information Technology)
The monitoring, managing and troubleshooting of computer equipment throughout a wireless network.

wireless Private Branch Exchange (PBX)
Equipment that allows employees or customers within a building or limited area to use wireless devices in place of traditional landline phones. Instead of contracting with a commercial wireless carrier, the company would provide service and support for all the wireless devices in their area.

WLL (Wireless Local Loop)
WLL is a system that connects wireless users to the public switch telephone network (PSTN) using wireless technology and other circuitry to complete the "last mile" between the wireless user and the exchange equipment. Wireless systems can often be installed faster and cheaper than traditional wired systems.

XML (Extensible Markup Language)
Allows information and services to be encoded with meaningful structure and semantics that computers and humans can understand. XML is great for information exchange, and can easily be extended to include user-specified and industry-specified tags.

Sources: @Road and

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